The Wells & Drew Printing Dictionary – I



a graphical representation of various elements in Windows, such as disk drives, applications and documents.
a computer illustration program developed by Adobe Systems, Inc.
the computerized representation of a picture or graphic.
image blinding
caused by excessive gum in the fountain solution which causes the plate image to become water receptive or can be caused by excessive acid or alkaline foutain solution.
image enhancements
electronic functions, such as shading, highlighting and zooming, that accent an image or portion of an image.
image processing
digitized images which have been scanned, captured by digital cameras to  be manipulated. For various reasons- improve the image,change its size, its color, or simply to touch-up parts of it. But a more important application of image processing is to compare and analyze images for characteristics that a human eye alone couldn’t perceive. This ability to perceive minute variations in color, shape and relationship has opened up applications for image processing in high-speed manufacturing quality control, criminal forensics, medicine, defense, entertainment and the graphic arts.
image processor
device that takes input data and changes it into the proper format for an imaging device _ printer, display, microform, or computer.
image resolution
the fineness or coarseness of an image as it was digitized, measured as dots-per-inch (DPI).
an imaging device specially applied to create type and graphics. Uses either raster or vector techniques to expose photographic paper or film. Contrasted with a character setter, which creates only alphanumeric characters by exposing paper or film through a mask with the shapes of the letters engraved in it.
in graphics to merge text and graphics into a document that you are currently creating or editing with the aid of a computer program.
laying out pages in a press form so that they will be in the correct order after the printed sheet is folded. In color reproduction, laying out originals in position in order that all components of a page can be gang scanned in position in one scan.
impression cylinder
the cylinder of a printing machine which brings the paper into contact with the with the printing plate or blanket cylinder.
the name and place of the publisher and printer required by law if a publication is to be published. Sometimes accompanied by codes indicating the quantity printed, month/year of printing and an internal control number.
the positions where lines of text begin and end within the specified margins.
index bristols
manufactured on Fourdrinier machines from chemical wood pulp. Index bristols are characterized by strength, ruggedness and erasability.
independent graphic
a graphic placed in a publication that is not tied to the text surrounding it.
Refers to printing on the upper right corner of an envelope-usually the postage-paid notice or a box for placement of a stamp.
In printing, ink transfer from image carrier to blanket to paper. Offset presses are indirect printing processes. They consist of plate cylinder, blanket cylinder and impression cylinder.
ink absorption
extent of ink penetration into paper.
ink balance
relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray
ink emulsification
several factors cause this the fountain solution emulsifying the ink or by the ink being too soft. Consult with your ink manufacturer to have the ink reformulated.
ink fountain
reservoir from which ink is metered to the rollers of a printing press.
ink holdout
a type of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also known as a holdout.
ink jet printing
method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
ink resistance
resistance to the penetration of ink vehicle; ink hold-out.
ink, not drying on sheet
caused by too much water run on the press or a weak pigment load.
ink, uneven coverage
caused when the inks film thickness is inconsistent across the sheet or the ink rollers stripping.
ink is applied by squeegee, immersion or roller. Letterpress and offset presses are inked with rollers. In the gravure process, cylinders are immersed in a formation of ink. Stencil printing usually emplys a squeegee.
in-line graphic
A graphic that is embedded in a text block or line of text.
in-plant printer
business or association that does printing for a parent company. Also called in-house printer.
input resolution
The number of samples taken at the scanner per unit of length when digitizing an image. Input resolution is often set the same as the system resolution. If the image is destined to be resized, however, the scanner resolution is set to accommodate interactive enlargement or reduction of the image at the workstation.
insert: a printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or other printed piece. In color separations, the placement of one piece of color into another.
insertion point
The place where text will be inserted when you type. The insertion point usually appears as a flashing vertical bar in the application’s window or in a dialog box. The text you type will appear to the left of the insertion point, which is pushed to the right as you type.
inside tint (Security Screen):
Envelope has a dark tint printed on its inside to keep contents protected from snooping. Custom designs are readily available.
a particular occurrence of an object, such as a window, module, named pipe, or DDE session. Each instance has a unique handle that distinguishes it from other instances of the same type.
intaglio printing:
printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.
integral proof
Color proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, as compared to an overlay proof. Also called composition proof, laminate proof, plastic proof and single-sheet proof. Interleaves printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
the hardware and software that enables electronic devices to share information.
inter-office mail
reusable large envelopes usually with string ties. Often has a series of punched holes so recipient knows that envelope contains material.
international paper sizes:
the International Standards Organisation (ISO) system of paper sizes is based on a series of three sizes A, B and C. Series A is used for general printing and stationery, Series B for posters and Series C for envelopes.
international standards organization. (ISO)
the organization that produces many of the world’s standards. Open System Interconnect (OSI) is only one of the many areas standardized by the ISO.
The name for the world wide web, millions of users worldwide that links government, business, research, industry, and

education together.

International Standard Book Number. A reference number given to every published work. Usually found on the back of the title page.

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